How Does AI Understand Human Language? Let’s Take A Closer Look At Natural Language Processing

How Does AI Understand Human Language? Let’s Take A Closer Look At Natural Language Processing

By Ankush Sabharwal

One of the most fascinating and influential areas of artificial intelligence (AI) is natural language processing (NLP). It enables machines to comprehend, interpret, and respond to human language in ways that feel natural and intuitive by bridging the communication gap between humans and computers.

What Is Natural Language Processing?

Natural Language Processing (NLP) improves human-computer interaction by enabling systems to read, decipher, comprehend, and interpret human languages effectively. The goal is to enhance user experiences through various applications such as chatbots and virtual assistants. Key aspects of NLP include language translation, sentiment analysis, speech recognition, and the development of conversational agents like chatbots.

The Essential Parts Of NLP 

NLP is an interdisciplinary field that integrates computer science, linguistics, and cognitive psychology. Its key components include:

  1. Syntax: The arrangement of words to form meaningful sentences is known as syntax. When parsing sentences to comprehend their grammatical structure, syntax analysis is helpful. 
  2. Semantics:  Semantics is the study of words’ meanings and how they are combined in sentences to form coherent information. 
  3. Pragmatics: Pragmatics examines how language interpretation is influenced by context. It requires knowing what a statement means and how it fits into the larger conversation. 
  4. Morphology: Morphology is the study of how morphemes, the smallest units of meaning, are combined to form words and their structure. 


Natural Language Processing (NLP) is an interdisciplinary field that combines computer science, linguistics, and artificial intelligence to enable machines to understand, interpret, and generate human language. At the core of NLP are two fundamental components: Natural Language Understanding (NLU) and Natural Language Generation (NLG).

Together, they form the foundation of NLP, enabling machines to seamlessly interact with humans in a natural, meaningful way. 

How NLU And NLG Work Together In NLP

When combined, NLU and NLG form a complete loop of understanding and generating natural language. Here’s how they work together in typical NLP applications:

  1. User Input: The process starts with the user providing input, such as a spoken query to a virtual assistant.
  2. NLU Processing: The input is processed by NLU to understand the meaning, intent, and context.
  3. Data Retrieval: Based on the understood input, relevant data is retrieved from databases or other sources.
  4. NLG Processing: NLG takes the retrieved data and generates a coherent and contextually appropriate response.
  5. User Output: The generated response is communicated back to the user in natural language.

How Generative AI Is Transforming Natural Language Processing

Generative AI is revolutionising Natural Language Processing (NLP) by enhancing the capabilities of machines to understand and generate human language. With the advent of advanced models, generative AI is pushing the boundaries of what NLP can achieve.

As these technologies continue to evolve, we can expect even more innovative and impactful applications that will further integrate AI into our daily lives, making interactions with machines more seamless and intuitive.

Applications In The Real World 

Numerous real-world applications of NLP have revolutionised technology interaction: 

  1. Virtual Assistants: Natural language processing (NLP) is used by assistants like Siri, Alexa, AskDISHA, PAi, DigiSaathi and Google Assistant to comprehend and respond to user queries in natural language.
  2. Sentiment Analysis: Companies analyze social media posts, reviews, and feedback to determine how people feel about their products or services. 
  3. Language Translation: Services like Google Translate use NLP to accurately translate text between languages. 
  4. Chatbots: NLP-based chatbots are used by a lot of customer service applications to interact with customers, answer questions, and provide support.

With the continuous advancements in AI and machine learning, the future of NLP appears promising. NLP is likely to become even more important in enhancing interactions between humans and computers as these models become more refined. 

The way we interact with technology is being transformed by Natural Language Processing, which is making it more intuitive and responsive to our requirements. The applications of these technologies are virtually limitless as we refine them, indicating a future in which human and machine communication is seamless and natural.

(The author is the Founder and CEO of CoRover)

Disclaimer: The opinions, beliefs, and views expressed by the various authors and forum participants on this website are personal and do not reflect the opinions, beliefs, and views of ABP Network Pvt. Ltd.

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